Objective: To study the prevalence of erythropoietin deficiency in relation with its serum levels and hemoglobin concentration in blood of patients with diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies. Materials and Methods: 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, complicated by diabetic nephropathy, with different stages of anemia, were included in the study. Results: In patients with diabetic nephropathy, the development of anemia was often observed already in the early stages of kidney damage, before the appearance of severe violations of their filtration function. Groups of patients with normal and reduced Hb levels did not significantly differ in mean age and duration of diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of erythropoietin deficiency increased as the glomerular filtration rate decreased. Conclusions: Mean values of serum erythropoietin concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease of stages I and II were normal, reducing with stages III and IV.